The main structural subdivisions of the Observatory are the scientific departments formed according to the main directions of the research and the : Provision on the Astronomical Observatory:
- Department of Solar Physics;
- Department for Physics of Stars and Galaxies;
- Relativistic Astrophysics and Cosmology Department;
- Department for Applied Physics and Physics of the Near Space.
The subsidiary structural subdivisions of the Observatory are:
- Astronomical Observatory Library (belonging to the oldest astronomical libraries and is a branch of the Ivan Franko National University of Lviv research Library). Together the university funds are estimated to be over 15 mln books and magazines;
- Telescope Maintenance Department;
- Maintenance Group.